About Oshmiany District
Oshmyansky district was founded on January 15, 1940. Originally part of the Vileika and Molodechenskiy areas from 20 November 1960, included in Grodno region. It is located in the North-Eastern part of the Oshmyany upland. It borders Lithuania in the West, Ostrovets district in the North, Smorgon and ivy Districts of Grodno region in the East and South, respectively, and Volozhin district of Minsk region in the South - East.
The area is 1.2 thousand square kilometers. Soils sod-podzolic and peat-marsh. Forests cover 34 % of the territory. 53% of the territory is occupied by agricultural land.
Zone-recreation - tract "Dry", gorpark, lake square Builders, D. Koroneiki, D. Olkovichi. There are children's health camp "Druzhba", health care institution "Tuberculosis hospital "Oshmyany".
In the 10 village Councils: Boronski, Golshany, Gruzijski, Grodinsky, Zupanski, Kamendrovsky, Kolczynski, Kramarevsky, Moore Osmanovski, Novoselkovskaya, including 364 settlements.
Population of the district (according to the census of 2009) – 32.3 thousand people, including the rural population of 14.8 thousand, urban – 17.5 thousand people.
The center of the district - the city of Oshmyany - is located on the river Oshmyanka 220 km from Grodno, 17 km from the railway station Oshmyany,120 km from Minsk and 55 km from Vilnius. The ninth transport corridor, which connects the countries of Western Europe and the CIS countries, passes through the Oshmyany district.
Linguists believe that the name of the city comes from the Lithuanian word "Osmans" - the cutting edge. Oshmyanskaya fortress, in their opinion, was the tip of the sword, which repeatedly stopped foreign invaders (there are other interpretations). It has long been neighbors of the population of Slavic and Baltic tribes.
The city appeared at the beginning of the XI century, in the documents for the first time mentioned later, when the Grand Duke of Lithuania Gediminas shortly before his death (died in 1341). appointed sons to reign in specific lands. Akuto (the youngest), he identified the "Vilna suburbs: Osmanu, Breslavlem, Vilkomir".
At this time the city was part of the Duchy of Vilna, with 1413 in the Vilna province. The city was raided by the Tatars, crusaders, suffered many hardships during the struggle for the throne between Sigismund and svidrigailo. In HU1 century city received Magdeburg law.
After the Union of Lublin in 1569, which hosted the Oshmyany delegation headed by Pavel Ostrovitsky, the city - as part of the Commonwealth. In 1792 he received his coat of arms. Since 1795 - in Vilna province of the Russian Empire. In 1845, the city received new arms. In 2005, in order to resolve the differences arising from the presence of two historical coats of arms in oshmyans, work was carried out on the establishment of official heraldic symbols (coat of arms and flag) of Oshmyany and Golshany.
In the past century in Oshmyany worked tanneries and other factories, was built a yeast plant - the oldest enterprise of the Republic, preserved to this day.
In 1915 it was occupied by the Kaiser, at the end of December 1918 it was liberated by the red Army. For 20 years was part of Poland, since 1939. in 1941. - part of Vileyka oblast of the Byelorussian SSR. In January 1940, it became the center of the district.
Oshmyansky district experienced all the horrors of the German occupation, lost many of his sons and daughters. On July 7, 1944, the Soviet Army liberated Oshmyany land from Nazi invaders.
Oshmyany land is rich in cultural traditions, its historical heritage is significant. The events that took place in the past, is evidenced by 48 historical monuments, 11 – architecture, 7 – archeology.
In the district the grave of the Belarusian poet F. Bogushevich (D. Zhuprany); chemist, physician, philosopher and educator A. Sladeckova (D. Gorodnichy).
Among the monuments - buildings of the Basilian monastery in Boruny D. (ХУ111 century), Franciscan monastery and Church in the village Golshany (ХУ11 century), the ruins of Golshany castle (1 half ХУ11 article), etc.
In the area of born painter Yu korchevsky, the Soviet party and statesman K. K. Striewski, Polish poet, translator, memoirist and social activist A. E. Odinets, head of the uprising of 1863-1864 in Oshmiany povet, archaeologist and author of memoirs of Z. S. Minako, poet, essayist and historian C. S. Jankowski, poets Advani V. and A. Zazulia, people's artist of the RSFSR A. I. Baturin.
The Struve Arc passes through the territory of the district, near the village of Tyupishki, which was included in the world heritage List by the 29th session of the UNESCO International Committee for the protection of the world cultural heritage in June 2005.
In the area there are monuments of nature of Republican value: the reserve of "dry valleys", boulders "Bridal rock", "Everlastingly", Studenetskiy, "Big stone Smolenski".
Nature monuments of local importance: nature reserves "Bite" and "Novoselki", biological reserve "Edge", plebanska valley, mountain Pelikan, Rupescissa mountain, 25 boulders and geological monuments.